Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in 2015: Lessons Learned

Authors: Ketha, Siva; Kusumoto, Fred M.

Over 20 years of research has led to the now widely accepted role of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in medically refractory, mild to severe systolic heart failure (HF) with increased QRS duration. In addition to conferring a mortality benefit, CRT has been shown to reduce HF hospitalization rates and improve functional status in this population. However, not all patients consistently demonstrate a positive response to CRT. Efforts to improve response to CRT have focused on improving patient selection and optimizing device implantation and follow-up, thereby correcting electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony. In this article we review the pathobiology of cardiac dyssynchrony, the rationale for the use of CRT, the history and the state of the art of CRT, and guidelines and recommendations for CRT, while also focusing on the areas of controversy and potential future applications.